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微硅粉的发展历程
- 2019-03-29-

1947年:在挪威克里斯蒂安桑市埃肯集团Fiskaa工厂,进行世界上首次收尘。  1951年:开始进行混凝土应用试验,1952年微硅粉混凝土第一次在工程中应用(奥斯陆BERNHARDT隧道)。   70年代:生产收尘技术日趋成熟,微硅粉对混凝土性能的改善引起广泛兴趣,应 用研究工作在世界范围内全面展开。挪威率先颁布微硅粉 在混合水泥与 混凝土中应用的国家标准。 80年代:应用技术高速发展,混凝土应用领域不断扩展,用量快速增长。挪威首先将微硅粉用于喷射混凝土,并很快成为喷射混凝土的标准组分。高强    泵送混凝土(80~130MPa)、高抗冲磨混凝土在美国成功应用。 90年代:成为广泛使用的火山灰质混合材,改善新拌与硬化混凝土的性能。世界范围的年用量达10万吨以上。 欧、美混凝土学会编制有关微硅粉在混凝土中应用指南,挪威、美国、加拿大、日本、法国、澳大利亚、中国等均有金属硅粉产品国家标准。

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 d) 砂石料用量调整:内掺微硅粉一般对砂石用量不必调整。外掺微硅粉要扣掉与微硅粉体积相等的砂石体积。

微硅粉对高性能混凝土强度的影响
尽管应用纯水泥可以制成抗压强度高达100 MPa 的HPC ,但当使用微硅粉时将容易得多。而对于制备强度超过100 MPa 的混凝土,微硅粉的使用几乎不可缺少。微硅粉在混凝土中同时起填充材料和火山灰材料使用。使用微硅粉后,大大降低了水化浆体中的孔隙尺寸,改善了孔隙尺寸分布,于是使强度提高,渗透性降低。例如,研究结果表明 (CEB2FIP1988) , 为获得70 MPa 的混凝土强度,应用纯水泥需要水胶比0.35 , 而当加8 %的微硅粉时,水胶比可以为0.50。由于微硅粉颗粒非常细,它们可以在很早的几个小时内发生火山灰反应。根据 Carette 和Malhotra 1992) 的报导,微硅粉对混凝土强度的贡献主要在28d 之前。所以,就长期强度增长方面,一般认为微硅粉混凝土不如纯水泥混凝土或粉煤灰混凝土。Almad (1994) 引用的微硅粉对 NSC 强度发展的试验结果表明,微硅粉掺量增加使得早期相对强度发展降低,Sandvik 1992 在65 MPa 的混凝土中也发现了这种现象。 然而,尽管在相同的水胶比下微硅粉混凝土的早期相对强度发展比纯水泥混凝土的慢,由于加入微硅粉使得强度大大提高,微硅粉混凝土的绝对强度则比纯水泥混凝土的高。另一方面,经验表明,HPC 的早期强度发展比NSC 的快,虽然HPC的凝结时间可能稍有推迟,其凝结之后的水化作用会由于高效减水剂和微硅粉大大加快。其结果通常是凝结之后强度发展非常快。 对于某些空气中干燥或养护的很低水胶比的微硅粉混凝土试件,有抗压强度倒缩的报导(De Larrard 和Aiticin 1993) 。这种强度降低通常发生在90 d 龄期之后,一般认为是由内部自干燥及干燥裂缝引起的。然而,许多其他研究人员的试验室及现场研究表明,HPC 的后期强度没有降低。例如,从6 种不同的HPC 中取得的3 个月至3 年龄期的所有钻芯试样试验结果表明,其强度在不断增长。当然,与NSC 比较, HPC 的长期强度增长潜力较小。 微硅粉对高性能混凝土的耐久性的影响 混凝土的耐久性包括了混凝土的抗冻性、抗渗性、抗化学侵蚀性,抗钢筋侵蚀能力和抗冲磨性能,在此仅谈谈它对混凝土的抗冻性、抗渗性及抗化学侵蚀性的影响。

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